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"Streptobacillus" Numbered ticks are 11 µm apart
Numbered ticks are 11 µm apart
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Fusobacteriota
Class: Fusobacteriia
Order: Fusobacteriales
Family: Leptotrichiaceae
Genus: Streptobacillus
Levaditi, Nicolau & Poincloux 1925
Type species
Streptobacillus moniliformis
Levaditi, Nicolau & Poincloux 1925
  • "Bactepneumonia" Tulasne & Brisou 1955
  • "Haverhillia" Parker & Hudson 1926
  • Pseudostreptobacillus Eisenberg et al. 2020

Streptobacillus is a genus of fastidious microaerophilic Gram-negative bacteria, which grow in culture as rods in chains.[2]

Species associated with infection - S. moniliformis

Reported susceptibilities and therapies - penicillin, erythromycin


Associated infections: the Haverhill fever form of rat bite fever. (Notes Spirillum minus is also an agent of rat bite fever, in the form known as Sodoku.)

Haverhill fever, which is characterized by fever, rash, chills, headache, vomiting, muscle pain, arthritis, and bacteremia, and by weight loss and diarrhea in children.


Rat bite fever is caused by either Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minor. The incidence of rat-bite fever is highest in urban areas with poor sanitation where the rat population is high, however in recent times cases have also been attributed to occupational contact with rodents such as pet shop employees or laboratory workers or through pet ownership.[3]

While the disease is usually caused by a bite, it can also occur from close contact with rodents or ingestion of contaminated food or water. The latter is known as Haverhill fever. The disease typically presents with chills and fever accompanied by headache, vomiting, and muscle pain. A rash and arthritis develop 2–4 days after the initial onset. Less commonly the infection can cause pneumonitis, endocarditis or meningitis. As these symptoms are common to many febrile diseases, this is often classified as a fever of unknown origin (FUO). If untreated, death will occur in approximately 10% of cases.[4]


The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)[5] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[1]

16S rRNA based LTP_01_2022[6][7][8] 120 marker proteins based GTDB 07-RS207[9][10][11]

Pseudostreptobacillus hongkongensis (Woo et al. 2014) Eisenberg et al. 2020


S. felis

S. moniliformis

S. notomytis

S. canis

S. ratti

S. hongkongensis Woo et al. 2014

S. canis Eisenberg et al. 2020

S. felis Eisenberg et al. 2015

S. moniliformis Levaditi, Nicolau & Poincloux 1925

S. notomytis Eisenberg et al. 2015

S. ratti Eisenberg et al. 2015

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Sayers; et al. "Streptobacillus". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2022-09-09.
  2. ^ Procop, Gary W. (2017). Koneman's color atlas and textbook of diagnostic microbiology. Church, Deirdre L., 1955-, Hall, Geraldine S.,, Janda, William M., 1951-, Koneman, Elmer W., 1932-, Schreckenberger, Paul,, Woods, Gail L. (Seventh ed.). Philadelphia. ISBN 978-1-4511-1659-5. OCLC 876002916.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. ^ Papanicolas, Lito E; Holds, Judith M; Bak, Narin (20 February 2012). "Lessons from practice - Meningitis and pneumonitis caused by pet rodents". The Medical Journal of Australia. 196 (3): 202–203. doi:10.5694/mja11.10841. PMID 22339528.
  4. ^ Elliott, S. P. (11 January 2007). "Rat Bite Fever and Streptobacillus moniliformis". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 20 (1): 13–22. doi:10.1128/CMR.00016-06. PMC 1797630. PMID 17223620.
  5. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Streptobacillus". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2022-09-09.
  6. ^ "The LTP". Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  7. ^ "LTP_all tree in newick format". Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  8. ^ "LTP_01_2022 Release Notes" (PDF). Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  9. ^ "GTDB release 07-RS207". Genome Taxonomy Database. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  10. ^ "bac120_r207.sp_labels". Genome Taxonomy Database. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  11. ^ "Taxon History". Genome Taxonomy Database. Retrieved 20 June 2022.

External links[edit]